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Foetal alcohol syndrome
Foetal (or Foetal) Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was first discovered in 1973 by doctors in the United States. The condition describes a number of foetal abnormalities which occur in the babies of women who have abused alcohol during their pregnancy, affecting the way a baby’s brain develops.
Fragile X syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome)
Fragile X is the most common genetically inherited condition which causes learning disability. There is a change (mutation) in one of the genes on the X chromosome, which produces a protein essential for brain development.